Periodontal (Gum) Disease

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Table of contents

  1. Symptoms of periodontal diseases
  2. Causes of periodontal disease
    1. Plaque build-up
    2. Gingivitis
    3. Hormonal changes
    4. Sickness
    5. Medication
    6. Smoking
    7. Poor oral hygiene habits
    8. Crowded and uneven teeth
    9. Family history
  3. How to treat periodontal disease
  4. Preventing periodontal disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease or periodontitis, is an oral bacterial ailment that can lead to tooth loss and damage surrounding tissue. Periodontal diseases are quite common but are treatable and preventable with timely action. In the early stages, the symptoms can be mild, however, failure to treat gum disease can lead to a myriad of oral problems, such as tooth loss, and damage to the supporting tooth structure.

It’s vital to practice good oral health habits regularly. Simple measures such as brushing your teeth twice per day, flossing daily, and visiting your dentist for regular dental check-ups can be enough to prevent most periodontal diseases.

Symptoms of periodontal diseases

Periodontal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms. People suffering from periodontitis may have one or several of the following symptoms:

  • Swollen gums.
  • Bright red coloring of the gums.
  • Purple discoloration of the gums.
  • Gums being tender to touch.
  • Gums bleeding easily.
  • Presence of traces of blood or tissue on toothbrush after use.
  • Bleeding when brushing or flossing your teeth.
  • Bad breath.
  • Presence of pus and abscess between your gums and teeth.
  • Loose teeth.
  • Tooth loss.
  • Pain when chewing.
  • New gaps or spaces emerging between your teeth.
  • Receding gums.
  • A noticeable change in how your teeth fit together when you bite down.

Having some of these symptoms doesn’t always mean you have gum disease, however

if you notice any of the above on a regular basis, it is a strong indication that periodontitis is prevalent.

It’s important to know what healthy gums should look and feel like so that you can spot any abnormalities.

Healthy gums are generally coral pink in color. However, it’s normal for people with different complexions to have a range of differently colored gums. Bright red or unnaturally black gums are often influenced by gum disease. If you notice a significant change in the color of your gums, it can mean that disease is present. Healthy gums should feel firm, and you shouldn’t be able to move them around with your fingers. Furthermore, they should have a secure fit to your teeth. Softness, tenderness, and puffiness are all characteristics of unhealthy gums.

Causes of periodontal disease

One of the leading causes of gum diseases is a build-up of plaque. This build-up can be due to several factors. Here are some contributors to periodontitis.

Plaque build-up

When certain foods interact with bacteria found in your mouth, they cause plaque to build on your teeth. While regular brushing and flossing removes plaque, it re-forms rather quickly.

Plaque can harden under the gums, turning into tartar if it isn’t removed. Tartar is difficult to get rid of, and it is filled with potentially detrimental bacteria. It requires professional dental aid to remove from your gums and teeth.


Gingivitis is one of the mildest forms of gums disease. It is irritation and inflammation of the gum tissue that surrounds the base of your teeth. Bacteria build-up causes this inflammation, and your gums often bleed easily during brushing. The teeth remain fixed firmly in the sockets, and there is no serious damage to the bones or tissue. While gingivitis can be treated and reversed, if left untreated, it can lead to more serious periodontitis.

Ultimately, pockets of space develop between your gums and teeth. These become filled with harmful plaque, tartar, and all sorts of micro organisms. The spaces become bigger and deeper, accumulating more debris. Infections ensue, causing severe damage to the tissue, bones, and teeth.

Hormonal changes

People experience hormonal shifts during puberty, pregnancy, menstruation cycles, menopause, and other stages of their lives. This can make gums more sensitive and prone to gingivitis or periodontal disease.


Many illnesses have an impact on the state of your gums, particularly those that affect your immune system. Ailments such as diabetes cause people to be at a high risk for developing gum disease as there is a hampering in breakdown and usage of blood sugar.


Certain drugs can negatively impact your oral health. While some reduce the amount of saliva flow, which is crucial to protect teeth and gums, others cause unnatural growth of gum tissue, which can contribute to periodontitis.


Habitual smoking can cause oral mucosal damage and reduces the ability of gums to repair themselves. This makes them much more susceptible to disease.

Poor oral hygiene habits

If you don’t maintain proper oral hygiene habits, you’re likely to develop some sort of oral health issue. That’s why it is very important to brush and floss your teeth daily.

Crowded and uneven teeth

Crowded, uneven, or largely spaced teeth can contribute to factors leading up to gum disease.

Family history

As with many other illnesses, family history and genetic makeup can contribute significantly to many gum diseases.

Further details can be checked out here as well

How to treat periodontal disease

As mentioned, mild gum disease such as gingivitis can be treated and reversed by adopting healthy oral hygiene habits. However, if more severe periodontal disease sets in, you will require professional treatment by a dentist, a dental hygienist, or a periodontist. Generally, the treatment will involve cleaning the pockets around the teeth and preventing further damage to the bone. You may also need to be seen by your dentist or periodontist more frequently than every 6 months to have your teeth cleaned.

If the periodontitis hasn’t progressed too far, there are non-surgical treatments available. Some of the most effective include:

  • Scaling: removing tartar and bacteria using dental instruments.
  • Root planing: smoothing root surfaces, removing harmful bacteria and byproducts, and reducing the risk of a further build-up of plaque, tartar, and bacteria.
  • Antibiotics: in the form of medication, mouth rinses, or gels. Over time, these can control infection and eliminate it completely.

Advanced periodontal diseases may require surgical treatment.

Preventing periodontal disease

There is no secret formula for preventing gum disease. You must practice good oral hygiene habits throughout your life and visit your dentist for cleanings every six to twelve months.

Here are some tips for maintaining good oral hygiene:

  • Brush your teeth for around two minutes at least twice per day. Always brush in the morning and before bed.
  • Floss at least once per day. It helps to do this before you brush.
  • Limit the number of sugary drinks that you consume.
  • Brush or floss away excess food or drink pieces in your teeth after eating.

If your teeth are uneven, crowded, or heavily gapped, consider getting aligners to straighten them. Clear aligners are subtle and very effective in creating straighter and healthier teeth. This can reduce the risk of developing oral problems and can go a long way in preventing periodontal diseases.


AlJehani, Y. A. (2014, May 20). Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors.

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